1. Technical Brief Introduction of Internet of Vehicles
Internet of Vehicles is a new generation of information and communication technology to realize omnidirectional network connection among vehicles, vehicle and vehicle, vehicle and road, vehicle and human, vehicle and service platform. It can enhance the level of vehicle intelligence and self-driving ability and build a new form of vehicle and traffic service. The definition of Internet of Vehicles includes Vehicle Intranet, Vehicle Internet and Vehicle Mobile Internet. It is a large-scale wireless communication and information exchange network system.
As the core communication technology of Internet of Vehicles, vehicle wireless communication technology (Vehicle to Everything, V2X) achieves information exchange and connection requirements between vehicles and other entities. It includes Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V), Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I), Vehicle to Pedestrian(V2P), and Vehicle to Networking (V2N).
At present, the development of V2X technology mainly includes DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications) technology and C-V2X (Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything) technology. The former was launched by Federal Communications Commission in 1999. After many times of verification, the technology has matured. There is no follow-up technology evolution plan. United States Department of Transportation set DSRC technology as the standard of Internet of Vehicles in 2014, and now it has reached the commercial production status. C-V2X technology is a vehicles wireless communication technology based on mobile cellular network. It was launched by the global 5G organization 5GAA in 2016. The technology evolution and commerce are in the validation stage. The evolution plan is clear. The evolved version of 5G requirement is 5G-V2X. At present, the representative technology LTE-V2X technology is based on LTE cellular network and has been widely promoted in the market.
2. Core Technical Requirements of 5G Internet of Vehicles
There are four points of core technical requirement of 5G Internet of Vehicles:
1) High reliability: Internet of Vehicles technology through real-time interaction of vehicle data, solving the problem of the safety of vehicles in operation, ensuring the safety of roads and vehicles, and avoiding traffic accidents as far as possible. Therefore, the vehicle network data must be safe, accurate and reliable in order to accurately analyze the situation of vehicles.
2) High bandwidth: Internet of Vehicles involves a huge amount of data, and most of them appear in the form of clusters. During traffic peak time such as holidays, the vehicle volume will increase in geometric growth. In addition, the emergence of various temporary emergencies, will bring about rapid growth in data volume. This requires the network system to have high bandwidth transmission capacity to avoid network paralysis.
3) Mobility: The main data of Internet of Vehicles comes from vehicles. Vehicles in the road are always in a mobile state, and the data obtained are dynamic. The 5G Internet of Vehicles needs to support the relative speed of up to 300Km/h.
4) Low latency: Vehicle data changes at different times. The speed of real-time transmission should be guaranteed. High latency will lead to vehicle status updating delay. Real-time is the basic guarantee of vehicle safety. What’s more, the automatic driving latency control of 5G Internet of Vehicles needs less than 10ms.
3. EUHT-5G Technology and it’s Characteristics
EUHT-5G (Enhanced Ultra High Throughput - 5th generation) is an ultra-high-speed wireless communication system designed by Nufront company to meet the requirements of high reliability, low latency and high mobility of future mobile communication systems. Since the beginning of research and development in 2007, with the support of national major scientific and technological support for three rounds of six years, EUHT has become a world leading special short-range communication technology independently developed by our country. In 2014, EUHT has been promulgated as a national standard of “Special short-range communication for cooperative Intelligent Transportation System”.
The key characteristics of EUHT-5G are:
(1) Supporting bands below 6 GHz, including 600 MHz-800 MHz, 1.8 GHz, 3.4 GHz-3.6 GHz 5G candidate band, 5 GHz to 6 GHz band. It will also support millimeter wave band in the future;
(2) Ultra-high peak throughput: the peak throughput is 3.48 Gbps;
(3) Ultra-high moving speed: the supporting moving speed is more than 500 km/h;
(4) High handover reliability: the handover success rate is more than 99.999% under high-speed moving over 300 km/h;
(5) Supporting ultra wideband data transmission under ultra-high-speed moving: supporting 150 Mbps user experience rate under high-speed moving over 300 km/h;
(6) Ultra-low latency: Air interface delay is less than 1 ms, end-to-end delay is less than 10 ms;
(7) Accurate positioning at sub-meter level: positioning accuracy and response time are higher than special algorithms of GPS
(8) Flexible frame structure and system design can efficiently adapt to various scenarios.
In summary, the technical performance of EUHT-5G has exceeded that of the fourth generation mobile communication technology (4G) by more than 10 times, meeting the performance requirements of the next generation (5G) technology, fully meeting the business needs of 5G vehicle network connection.
4. EUHT-5G Internet of Vehicles Solution
EUHT-5G Internet of Vehicles solution provides secure, reliable and timely communication guarantee for V2V, V2I, V2N and V2P application scenarios, and builds a "high-threshold information highway with high reliability and low latency".
4.1 EUHT-5G Internet of Vehicles Architecture
Based on EUHT-5G technology, the architecture of Internet of Vehicles system mainly includes four parts: intelligent terminal, intelligent roadside system, cloud control platform and commercial application system. The architecture of EUHT-5G intelligent transportation network is as follows:
Figure 1: EUHT-5G intelligent transportation network architecture
l Intelligent Terminal: Intelligent vehicles loaded with EUHT-5G terminal (equipment intelligent vehicles in short) and portable terminal, V2V direct communication can be achieved between vehicles. V2X communication can be achieved between vehicles, roadside systems, cloud control platforms. Portable terminal can flexibly support field law enforcement, cluster communication, etc.
l Intelligent Roadside System: EUHT-5G base station and EUHT-5G synchronization system constitute V2X communication network, which carries the communication service between cloud control platform and intelligent terminal. After information collection and edge computing, roadside intelligent facilities publish information through EUHT-5G V2X communication network, and receive the control of cloud control platform;
l Cloud Control Platform: Including traffic management, network management and data management modules. Traffic management is responsible for traffic control, supervision and information dissemination; network management is responsible for equipment management, data channel management and business bandwidth allocation; data management completes data collection, storage and calculation, guides traffic control downward, and can serve commercial application system.
l Commercial Application System: Internet of Vehicles platform has abundant data and wide application scenarios, which can be used as the basis for policy research and business analysis by traffic management departments, emergency rescue, etc. It can also provide business management and information query services for automobile enterprises, operation companies (such as bus companies, freight companies), insurance companies and driving individuals.
4.2 EUHT-5G Internet of Vehicles System Frequency Band
EUHT-5G technology can support multiple frequency bands between 500MHz and Sub-6GHz, and can select suitable equipment system according to the actual frequency band application of Internet of Vehicles system. Currently, 5150MHz-5850MHz and 600MHz-800MHz can be used maturely.
4.3 EUHT-5G Internet of Vehicles Equipment
EUHT-5G central access equipment is the core base station equipment of EUHT-5G network. Through the connecting networking of multiple devices, it can form the complete coverage of EUHT-5G network, and further achieve the internet access of all EUHT-5G devices in the coverage area.
Figure 2: EUHT-5G central access equipment
EUHT-5G terminal access equipment is similar to T-Box (Telematics BOX). It provides EUHT-5G wireless network for all kinds of vehicles. The data of intelligent vehicles or intelligent road facilities on the terminal side can be transmitted bidirectionally through EUHT-5G network and control management center. It can also realize direct communication between vehicles on the terminal side.
Figure 3: EUHT-5G terminal access equipment
5. EUHT-5G Internet of Vehicles Industrial Application Cases
In September 2017, EUHT-5G system was deployed in Chang'an University Intelligent Vehicle Test Field, for the first time in the world, the video surveillance, sensors, operating status parameters and other data of testing cars with a speed of more than 120km/h are transmitted back to the test and control center in real time, real-time data analysis of test vehicle status is realized, and the test level is comprehensively improved.
In August 2018, EUHT-5G system was built in the Guangzhou-to-Shenzhen expressway which was the world's first commercial case to meet C-ITS (Cooperative
Intelligent Transportation System). The EUHT-5G system realized real-time video security monitoring and data acquisition of the operating vehicle, road environment, traffic flow, road safety, etc.
Figure 4: EUHT-5G was applied in the Guangzhou-to-Shenzhen expressway
In 2019, Beijing began to establish a demonstration park of IOV self-driving car. As a core player, Nufront will apply EUHT-5G to the basic wireless IOV system to build the communication bridge between self-driving vehicles and other vehicles, surrounding intelligent transportation facilities and control centers.
In May 2019, Qilu Traffic Intelligent Highway Unpiloted Demonstration Field used EUHT-5G network to take remote monitoring and control of Unpiloted vehicles, which provided excellent test and demonstration conditions for the application of Unpiloted vehicles in highway scenario.
Figure 5: EUHT-5G was applied in Qilu Traffic Intelligent Highway Unpiloted Demonstration Field (Base Station on the Gantry)
Figure 6: EUHT-5G was applied in Qilu Traffic Intelligent Highway Unpiloted Demonstration Field (Terminals on Unpiloted Vehicles)
6. Concluding Remarks
“4G changes life, 5G changes society.” This sentence reflects the world's unlimited expectations for the 5G era, and the essence of 5G is the combination of 5G and vertical industries. Only when 5G is integrated into all industries, can it exert great potential to change society. Among them, the application of Internet of Vehicles is the most potential market for 5G in vertical industries.
EUHT-5G technology developed by Nufront company, which awarded “Technology Innovation Award: The World’s First Deployed URLLC Wireless Communication System and SoC”. EUHT-5G technology has been commercialized since 2017. In addition to the industry of Internet of Vehicles, EUHT-5G technology has been successfully applied to intelligent transportation, rail transit, industrial interconnection, wide area wireless coverage and many other fields. Recently, it has been accepted by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) as one of the candidates for 5G. Nufront company will strengthen the research and development of EUHT-5G core technology, expand the application scenario of Internet of Vehicles, lead the new era of China's 5G Internet of Vehicles communication.